Próstata

¿Riesgo que se activa con el tiempo?

La próstata puede presentar diversas enfermedades inflamatorias o infecciosas (Prostatitis) en el transcurso de la vida, pero con el paso de los años la mayoría de los hombres sufre un crecimiento paulatino y benigno de la glándula prostática llamado hiperplasia.

La próstata se localiza en la parte inferior de la vejiga, por delante del recto y está rodeado de la uretra. Es una glándula exclusiva del sistema reproductor masculino y su función principal es secretar un líquido que forma parte del semen y facilita la movilidad de los espermatozoides.

Ubicación anatómica de la prostata

El crecimiento de células no siempre es benéfico…

El cáncer de próstata es un tumor maligno causado por un crecimiento descontrolado de las células que componen la próstata, se presenta generalmente después de los 40 años de edad y ocupa en México la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en los hombres, sólo después del cáncer de pulmón. Si la detección es en las primeras etapas, se considera una enfermedad curable, pero si no es detectado a tiempo la enfermedad avanza y pone en peligro la vida. En sus etapas iniciales no manifiesta ningún síntoma o puede dar síntomas menores como los de la hiperplasia y eso le permite un crecimiento “silencioso”, que sólo puede ser detectado con los estudios médicos para la detección oportuna.

El cáncer de próstata es la segunda causa más común de muertes por cáncer en el hombre después de los 55 años y la primera causa de muerte después de los 70 años. Este cáncer se puede detectar en etapas muy tempranas con la realización de un tacto rectal, además de que por esta técnica de exploración se pueden detectar un 25% de los canceres colorrectales.


¿Cómo prevenir un mal diagnóstico?

El cáncer de próstata al principio no causa muchos síntomas, sin embargo, cuando estos aparecen, pueden indicar un padecimiento mucho más extenso. Algunos son:

  • Imposibilidad de orinar
  • Dificultad para empezar a orinar o para detener el flujo de orina
  • Necesidad de orinar con frecuencia, especialmente por la noche
  • Flujo débil de orina
  • Flujo de orina que empieza y se detiene
  • Dolor o ardor al orinar
  • Dificultad para tener una erección
  • Sangre en la orina o en el semen.
  • Dolor frecuente en la parte baja de la espalda, en las caderas o en la parte superior de los muslos

A partir de los 40 es primordial hacerse exámenes.

El diagnóstico oportuno o “temprano” del cáncer de próstata es muy sencillo y asegura su detección en más del 90 % de los casos. Los exámenes de detección deben realizarse anualmente a partir de los 40 años de edad y consiste en un examen físico que incluye la realización de un tacto rectal y un examen de la sangre que permite medir una sustancia llamada antígeno prostático específico.

El tacto rectal aunque es molesto, resulta indoloro y ofrece información muy valiosa al médico sobre el tamaño, la consistencia y la presencia o no de lesiones en la próstata que pueden ser sospechosas de cáncer u otras enfermedades.

La medición del Antígeno Prostático Específico (APE o PSA) en la sangre, permite al médico sospechar de cáncer si la prueba demuestra un antígeno elevado. Cuando existe sospecha del cáncer en una o ambas pruebas mencionadas se requiere hacer otros estudios, entre los que se encuentra el ultrasonido prostático y principalmente la biopsia de la próstata, que consiste en tomar un fragmento de la lesión sospechosa para su estudio microscópico para poder confirmar el diagnóstico.

Referencias
Schroder FH: Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1320-1328
Walczak J, Carducci M: Prostate cancer. A practical approach to current management of recurrent diseaseMayo Clin Proc 2007; 82(2):243

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Quizas también te interese, conocer más sobre el Antígeno Prostático Específico, da clic aqui: http://chopo.com.mx/blog/antigeno-prostatico-especifico/


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